【就业那些事儿】DET如何说服社会接纳残障?

来源:有人杂志   作者:周海滨   2016.05.04 16:51  评论2  浏览1881
摘要:障碍平等意识培训(Disability Equality Training,简称:DET)是由国际劳工组织(ILO)自2008年开始在全球推广并实践的参与式培训。随着连续几年在中国的落地,DET的效果在改变参与者对障碍者的态度方面日渐显现,并且有望成为新一轮普及《残疾人权利公约》(CRPD公约)精神的导火线。
本文来源:http://www.juvpc.com.cn/a/sfj.fuzhou.gov.cn/

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障碍平等意识培训(Disability Equality Training,简称:DET)是由国际劳工组织(ILO)2008年开始在全球推广并实践的参与式培训。随着连续几年在中国的落地,DET的效果在改变参与者对障碍者的态度方面日渐显现,并且有望成为新一轮普及《残疾人权利公约》(CRPD公约)精神的导火线。

本人第一次接触DET是在20139月,作为ILODET准引导师接受培训。当自己接受完五天的训练以后,对DET产生了浓浓痴迷。DET是把参与者作为互动的中心,这是区别于国内一般培训的最大区别;此外,DET关注参与者如何以团队合作的方式,形成改变态度和行为。在中国的教育文化中,我们习惯了一位神乎其神的专家漫天神侃,不关注参与者是否接受或者反对;在这样的学习中,权力的中心是侃神。而每一个DET准备中、期间和之后,都要对参与者有大量细致的访谈和跟进,权力的中心放在了参与者本身,发现他们对障碍者的态度,激发他们寻找破除障碍者融合的歧视性因素。

满怀着将DET洒遍中国的期望,本人已经在北京、郑州、上海、长沙等城市多次尝试用其中的技术、环节引导,之后能很快看到参与者行为改变。例如,有一家公益机构派出了一位员工参加,该参与者负责开发、维护网上障碍者就业平台。两天的DET后他说,“我回去第一件事是改造我们的平台,让它对障碍使用者更便利”。另一个例子发生在心智障碍者家长身上,一些家长说,DET是触及灵魂的改变,你会从内而外去相信并引发改变,并从改变那些你身边的人开始。

有人会说,你这是在做广告,DET哪有那么玄乎,很多引导工作坊、参与式培训不是一样可以达到你说的效果?回头来看,除了刚才说的两点,DET与其他工作坊不同的是,它讲清楚了什么是“残疾”的社会模式视角,而且用了大量来自参与者自己的语言和态度。

这一方面尤其体现在企业雇佣上。例如在促进障碍者上岗的过程中,我发现其实最困难、最需要应对的,其实是根植在企业管理者心中对障碍者的不信任甚至污名。曾经在数位人力经理的口中听到,“残疾人就是上辈子造了孽,他们怎么可以工作呢?”类似这样的言论,相信很多障碍者朋友听到多次了。而当有人正面指出说你这样说不对时,说着也许面上道歉,内心中可能依然觉得,障碍者就是不行。DET引导师Maureen曾深入分析说,公众对障碍者的污名背后,其实是对和普通人身体、心理不同的“残疾”不了解,而不了解逼迫人们远离“残疾”,而一切的一切回到原点,其实是一种对“残疾”的恐惧使然。而这一理念,是通过游戏来传达的。

DET提到,社会模式下的“残疾观”,提醒人们阻碍障碍者融入社会的核心,社会物理和观念的阻碍;一旦社会对障碍者提供一定的支持,他们就可以丢掉障碍,平等地和其他人融合在一起。这一提法是颠覆性的,尤其是摒弃了医疗观念,即把残疾作为一种需要治疗的群体,要把障碍者变得和其他人一样,而这往往是忽略了人的多样性和需求差异。

前不久,我在上海给一家驰名跨国公司的中国运营员工做小型的DET引导,它所引发的改变热情是惊人的。引导师将参与者分成四组,分别模拟工作场所雇佣四种残障类型——心智障碍、视障、听障、肢体障碍者,让参与者思考:1)他们融入企业的困难是什么2)他们需要何种便利支持,然后四组分别通过画图、蒙眼睛的讲述、哑剧、坐在轮椅上讲述等四种方式轮流表演,在小组呈现以后,选出最好的一个小组,回到所有参与者的大组进行呈现。

员工的参与热情高涨,企业管理层随之决定,将分别在企业障碍者融合志愿服务,开拓障碍者聘用渠道,工作场所合理便利改造等方面,做出表率。这,就是DET洒遍中国的希望所在,因为它给人信心、赋与人能力,让人们坚定地为之努力。


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1 博爱儿童 | 2016-11-02 08:49:17   回复
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